- Is a vasospastic disease that affects the blood supply to the fingers and toes (rare but can affect the tip of the nose/earlobes.
- Triggered by exposure to the cold, stress/psychological upsets
- Pt will report one or more fingers turning white/numb, blue during rewarming and then bright red due to increased blood flow. Pt can report that it lasts minutes to hours.
- Can be primary (not associated with any disease process) or secondary (due to another disease process)
Causes of Secondary Raynauds
- Systemic Sclerosis (crest syndrome)
- Systemic Lupus Erythematous
- Sjogren syndrome
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Drugs- B blocker, clonidine, bleomycin, bromocriptine, imipramine, OCPs
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Occupational causes- using vibrating tools- pneumatic drill operators, lumberjacks
Chilblains (also known as Pernio or Perniosis)
- It is a localized form of vasculitis. Red/purple patches that can be painful, pruritic, and may blister, scab or ulcerate. Affected areas may be swollen.
- Occurs several hours after cold exposure and lasts between 7-14 days
- Common locations: fingers/toes, heels, lower extremities, nose, ears (wrists in babies)
- Peds: may recur each winter and then suddenly resolve
- Elderly: tends to recur yearly and likely to worsen each year
- Pt’s with poor peripheral circulation are more likely to develop chilblains
DermNet NZ. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.dermnetnz.org